This page has links to articles on bitcoin including the (now) famous bitcoin whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto along with other theoretical constructs which compliment or are similar to bitcoin.
The Bitcoin Whitepaper – Satoshi Nakamoto
This is where your adventure in bitcoin should start. Simple enough for the layman, technical enough for the developer and groundbreaking enough that it’s implications are still being felt the world over. A solution to the Byzantium generals problem laid out with explicit simplicity and wrapped in cryptographic solution to counter-party risk over distributed systems.
Abstract – A purely peer-to-peer version of electronic cash would allow on-line payments to be sent directly from one party to another without going through a financial institution… – yes it would Satoshi, yes it would…